Seshat Global History Databank Ontology

IRI:
http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#
Date:
22/12/2015
Current version:
0.1.17
Authors:
Gavin Mendel-Gleason
Kevin Feeney
Rob Brennan
Contributors:
Andrey Korotayev
Arkadiusz Marciniak
Bojan Bozic
Christopher Chase-Dunn
Daniel Hoyer
David Baker
David S. Wilson
Douglas R. White
Enrico Spolaore
Frances Reynolds
Harvey Whitehouse
J. G. Manning
Jack A. Goldstone
Johannes Preiser-Kapeller
Nikolay Kradin
Odhran Gavin
Peter J. Richerson
Peter N. Peregrine
Peter Turchin
Pieter Francois
Romain Wacziarg
Thomas E. Currie
Other visualisation:
Ontology source

Abstract

The Seshat Global History Databank ontology is designed to describe human societies throughout time.

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Data Properties
  5. Named Individuals
  6. Annotation Properties
  7. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

This ontology will be used by the Evolution Institute and its partners to describe time series data collected about all human societies.

Classes

Alcoholc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Alcohol

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Euphoricc

Animal Sacrificec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Animal

No entry in codebook.

has super-classes
Sacrificec

Audiencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Audience

A typical member of a ritual audience consisting of passive spectators or witnesses. Used to scope the definition of a seshat:ritualFrequency or seshat:ritualInclusiveness value.

has super-classes
Ritual Actorc

battlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Battle

A derived concept covering historical battles.

has super-classes
eventc
has sub-classes
Land battlec, Naval Engagementc
is in domain of
Belligerent A Army Lossesop, Belligerent A Army Sizeop, Belligerent A Percent Army Lostop, Belligerent B Army Lossesop, Belligerent B Army Sizeop, Belligerent B Percent Army Lostop, Dateop, Latitudeop, Logarithmic magnitudeop, Longitudeop, Other belligerent Aop, Other belligerent Bop, Principal belligerent Aop, Principal belligerent Bop

Building Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#BuildingVariable

A generic Building Variable.

is equivalent to
Building Bag of Values Restriction and Building Max Value Restriction and Building Min Value Restriction and Building Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Most Impressive/Costly Buildingop

cityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#City

Cities are represented by a single point on the map that doesn�t change with time. Although it is possible to reflect their spatial expansion dynamically, we chose not to do so in the current implementation.

has super-classes
Organisationc

City Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#CityVariable

This is the class of seshat variables that have a seshat:City as their value type. Adding this class allows us to model super-properties that respect the seshat variable structure based on multiple inheritance to deal with temporal scoping, uncertainty while specifying a domain.

is equivalent to
City Bag of Values Restriction and City Max Value Restriction and City Min Value Restriction and City Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Cityop, Largest Settlementop

collection of territoriesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#CollectionOfTerritories

A container class for a group of units of territories.

has super-classes
Unit of territoryc
is in domain of
includes unit of territoryop

Collective Ritualc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#CollectiveRitual

A collective ritual is a ritual in which two or more people participate.

has super-classes
Ritualc
has sub-classes
Most Dysphoric Ritualc, Ritual of the Official Cultc

Cost Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#CostVariable

Used for buildings

has super-classes
Human Effortc
is in range of
Cost (building)op

Costs of Participation Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#CostsOfParticipationVariable

Holds the seshat:CostsOfParticipation values for a seshat:RitualRecord.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Currencyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Currency

No entry in codebook.

has super-classes
Participation Costc

Dancingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Dancing

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Euphoricc

degree of centralisation valuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#DegreeOfCentralisationValue

has super-classes
{ Confederated State , Nominal , Loose , Quasipolity or None , Unitary State }
has members
Confederated Stateni, Looseni, Nominalni, Quasipolity or Noneni, Unitary Stateni

Degree Of Centralization Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#DegreeOfCentralizationVariable

The Degree of Centralisation main variable for Seshat:Polities.

is equivalent to
Degree Of Centralization Bag of Values Restriction and Degree Of Centralization Max Value Restriction and Degree Of Centralization Min Value Restriction and Degree Of Centralization Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Degree of centralizationop

Disgustc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Disgust

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

Duration Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#DurationVariable

Seshat variable to hold the duration of a seshat:Temporal Entity.

is equivalent to
Duration Bag of Values Restriction and Duration Max Value Restriction and Duration Min Value Restriction and Duration Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Dateop, Durationop, War Dateop

Dysphoricc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Dysphoric

Dysphoric elements are negative (frightening, painful, or unpleasant), emotionally arousing components of ritual.

has super-classes
Ritual Elementc
has sub-classes
Disgustc, Fastingc, Fearc, Humiliationc, Mutiliationc, Other Dysphoricc, Painc, Poisoning/Dysphoria-causing Drugsc, Risk of Deathc, Vigil/Sleep Deprivationc

Entertainmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Entertainment

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Euphoricc

Entity Componentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#EntityComponent

This is a structural class of things that group sets of related variables that form a coherent component of an Entity.

has super-classes
Seshat Entitityc
has sub-classes
Ritual Record Variablec
is in range of
Has Componentop

Euphoria-inducing Drugsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#EuphoriaInducingDrugs

Other than alchol.

has super-classes
Euphoricc

Euphoricc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Euphoric

Euphoric elements are positive, emotionally arousing components of a ritual.

has super-classes
Ritual Elementc
has sub-classes
Alcoholc, Dancingc, Entertainmentc, Euphoria-inducing Drugsc, Feastingc, Other Euphoricc, Sexc, Singingc, Synchronous Movementc

eventc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Event

An abstract class describing historical events.

has super-classes
temporal entityc
has sub-classes
Meta-conflictc, Siegec, battlec, warc
is in range of
associated with eventop

Fastingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Fasting

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

Fearc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Fear

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

Feastingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Feasting

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Euphoricc

Free form areac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#FreeFormArea

Freeform area (FA). This is an area enclosed within a boundary, or a dated set of boundaries. Basically, it is our method for treating an arbitrary shape on the map to which a historical expert wishes to tie certain values of coded variables. Examples include a province within an empire, something with a hole in it, or a �southeast corner of a region.

has super-classes
Unit of territoryc
has sub-classes
NGA, Natural geographic areac

Health Costsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#HealthCost

No entry in codebook.

has super-classes
Participation Costc

Human Effortc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#HumanEffort

A datatype object used to specify a number of years of human effort, for example to express a cost.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal non negative integer data variablec
has sub-classes
Cost Variablec

Human Sacrificec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Human

A set of participation costs based on human sacrifice for rituals.

has super-classes
Sacrificec
has sub-classes
Of a Relativec, Of an In-Group Memberc, Of an Out-Group Memberc

human scale temporal frequency valuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#HumanScaleTemporalFrequencyValue

has super-classes
{ Weekly , Monthly , Once Per Geneation , Daily , Once in a Lifetime , Yearly }
has members
Dailyni, Monthlyni, Once Per Geneationni, Once in a Lifetimeni, Weeklyni, Yearlyni

Human Scale Temporal Frequency Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#HumanScaleTemporalFrequencyVariable

Seshat variable for defining ritual event frequencies.

is equivalent to
Human Scale Temporal Frequency Bag of Values Restriction and Human Scale Temporal Frequency Max Value Restriction and Human Scale Temporal Frequency Min Value Restriction and Human Scale Temporal Frequency Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
has sub-classes
Ritual Frequency Variablec

Humiliationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Humiliation

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

Imagec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ImageVariable

A reference to an image file.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal any u r i data variablec
has sub-classes
Map Variablec

Interest groupc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#InterestGroup

An Interest Group(IG) is a social group that pursues some common interest, so that its members are united by a common goal or goals. Polities and religious cults are also interest groups, but the IG category is broader. It also includes ethnic groups, professional associations, warrior bands, solidarity associations, mutual aid societies, firms and banks (including their premodern variants), etc. The IG is defined sociologically, not geographically. However, if desired, a geographic area, enclosed within a boundary, may be associated with it in the same way as with a polity or a Religious System(RS).

has super-classes
Organisationc
has sub-classes
Religious systemc

Land battlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#LandBattle

A derived concept covering historical land battles.

has super-classes
battlec

Land Battle Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#LandBattleVariable

This is the class of seshat variables that have a seshat:LandBattle as their value type.

is equivalent to
Land Battle Bag of Values Restriction and Land Battle Max Value Restriction and Land Battle Min Value Restriction and Land Battle Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Land Battleop

Language Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#LanguageVariable

Describes a seshat:Language variable for a seshat:Organisation.

is equivalent to
Language Bag of Values Restriction and Language Max Value Restriction and Language Min Value Restriction and Language Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Languageop

Largest Communication Distance Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#LargestCommunicationDistanceVariable

Seshat variable to hold the largest communication distance value.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal unsigned long data variablec
is in range of
Largest communication distanceop

Largest Scale Ritualc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#LargestScaleRitual

Largest scale refers to the largest number of people a ritual brings together in a single location.

has super-classes
Ritual of the Official Cultc

Levels Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#LevelsVariable

Seshat variable to hold a number of levels, such as in a hierarchy.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal non negative integer data variablec
is in range of
Administrative levelsop, Military levelsop, Religious levelsop, Settlement hierarchyop

Linear dimensionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#LinearDimension

A datatype object used to specify a height, length, width or other linear distance measured in metres.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal non negative integer data variablec

Linear Dimension Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#LinearDimensionVariable

A Linear dimension Variable measured in metres.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal non negative integer data variablec
is in range of
Extent (building)op, Heigth (building)op, Long Wallsop

Linguistic Familyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#LinguisticFamily

An identifiable lingusitic family for classifying human languages.

is in range of
Linguistic Familyop

Map Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#MapVariable

Used to hold a seshat variable pointing at a seshat:Map.

has super-classes
Imagec
is in range of
Mapop

Meta-conflictc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#MetaConflict

Is this war part of a group of conflicts that span a much larger timeframe between the belligerents? For example, the 'First', 'Second' and 'Third Punic' wars are conflicts within the Roman-Carthage meta-conflict. These wars are coded as separate wars, rather than grouped together and coded as a single 'Roman-Carthage' war.

has super-classes
eventc

Most Dysphoric Ritualc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#MostDysphoricRitual

The most dysphoric collective ritual may not belong to the official cult, but may be practiced by another group that has a significant role in the polity.

has super-classes
Collective Ritualc

Most Euphoric Ritualc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#MostEuphoricRitual

Nothing in codebook.

has super-classes
Ritual of the Official Cultc

Most Frequent Ritualc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#MostFrequentRitual

Nothing in codebook.

has super-classes
Ritual of the Official Cultc

Most Widespread Ritualc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#MostWidespreadRitual

Widespread refers to the degree of coverage a ritual has in a polity and therefore to the proportion of the overall population that participates in or observes a ritual. Keep in mind that it is possible that the ritual with the highest coverage is not necessarily a mass ritual performed at one location, but can be a ritual that is performed all over the polity and of which the aggregate of the audiences represent the largest degree of coverage.

has super-classes
Ritual of the Official Cultc

Mutiliationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Mutiliation

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

Name Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#NameVariable

A variable holding a name of a seshat entity.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal string data variablec
has sub-classes
Ritual Name Variablec
is in range of
Alternative nameop, Nameop

Naval Engagementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#NavalEngagement

A derived concept covering historical naval engagements.

has super-classes
battlec

Naval Engagement Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#NavalEngagementVariable

This is the class of seshat variables that have a seshat:NavalEngagement as their value type.

is equivalent to
Naval Engagement Bag of Values Restriction and Naval Engagement Max Value Restriction and Naval Engagement Min Value Restriction and Naval Engagement Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Naval Engagementop

NGA, Natural geographic areac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#NGA

Natural Geographic Area (NGA). This type of unit is defined spatially by the area enclosed within a boundary drawn on the world map. It does not change with time. Its rough spatial scale is 100 km � 100 km (+/- 50%). Examples: Latium, Upper Egypt, Middle Yellow River Valley.

has super-classes
Free form areac
is in domain of
Animals used for agricultural laborop, Animals used for transportop, Animals used in the militaryop, Billon currencyop, Bronze currencyop, Bronze workingop, Coalop, Copperop, Copper currencyop, Domestic miningop, Electrum currencyop, Goldop, Intensty of miningop, Iron currencyop, Iron workingop, Metal agricultural toolsop, Metal currencyop, Metal currencyop, Metal used in armorop, Metal vessels or utensils used in food preparationop, Oils or other combustiblesop, Roughly what % of soldiers could afford any metal armor?op, Silver currencyop, State control over miningop, State monopoly over bronze productionop, State monopoly over copper productionop, State monopoly over iron productionop, State monopoly over steel productionop, Steel workingop, Water powerop, Wind powerop, Woodop, tin currencyop

Of a Relativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OfARelative

e.g. sacrificing the first-born son.

has super-classes
Human Sacrificec

Of an In-Group Memberc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OfAnInGroupMember

i.e. an individual who is considered part of the group performing the ritual.

has super-classes
Human Sacrificec

Of an Out-Group Memberc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OfAnOutGroupMember

i.e. an individual who is not considered part of the group performing the ritual.

has super-classes
Human Sacrificec

Organisationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Organisation

An abstract concept describing human social groups.

has super-classes
temporal entityc
has sub-classes
Interest groupc, Political Authorityc, Supracultural Entityc, cityc
is in domain of
Administrative levelsop, Areaop, Army Sizeop, Articlesop, Atlatlop, Battle Axesop, Brestplatesop, Bridgesop, Bronzeop, Burial Siteop, Calendarop, Camelsop, Canalsop, Ceremonial Siteop, Chainmailop, Communal Buildingsop, Compelx Fortificationsop, Composite bowop, Copperop, Couriersop, Courtsop, Crossbowop, Daggersop, Debit and Credit Structuresop, Degree of centralizationop, Ditchop, Dogsop, Donkeyssop, Drinking Water Supply Systemsop, Earth Rampartsop, Elephantsop, Enclosuresop, Entertainment Buildingsop, Examination Systemop, Exists withinop, Fastest Individual Communicationop, Fictionop, Food Storage Sitesop, Foreign Coinsop, Formal Legal Codeop, Fortified Campsop, Full-time bureaucratsop, General Postal Serviceop, Geometricalop, Gunpowder siege artilleryop, Handheld firearmsop, Has Writing Systen Variableop, Helmetsop, Historyop, Horsesop, Indigenous Coinsop, Ironop, Irrigation Systemsop, Javelinsop, Judgesop, Knowledge/Information Buildingsop, Lamilar Armourop, Languageop, Largest Fielded Armyop, Largest Settlementop, Largest communication distanceop, Leather, clothop, Lengthop, Limb Protectionop, Lists, tables, and classificationsop, Long Wallsop, Marketsop, Maximum Logistical Lagop, Measurement System Variableop, Merchant ships pressed into serviceop, Merit Promotionop, Military levelsop, Mines or quarriesop, Mnemonic devicesop, Moatop, Modern Fortificationsop, Most Impressive/Costly Buildingop, Non-phonetic alphabetic writingop, Non-written Recordsop, Otherop, Other Handheld Weaponop, Other Measurement Systemop, Other Special Purpose Siteop, Other Thrown Weaponsop, Paper Currncyop, Peak dateop, Philiosophyop, Phonetic alphabetic writingop, Plate Armourop, Polearmsop, Polity Populationop, Portsop, Postal Stationsop, Practical Literatureop, Precious metalsop, Procurement of equipmentop, Professional Lawyersop, Professional Military Officersop, Professional Priesthoodop, Professional Soldiersop, Relationship to preceding (quasi)polityop, Religious Literatureop, Religious levelsop, Roadsop, Sacred Textsop, Scaled Armourop, Scientific Literatureop, Scriptop, Self bowop, Settlement hierarchyop, Settlements in a defensive positionop, Shieldsop, Sling siege enginesop, Slingsop, Small Vessels (canoes, etc.)op, Source of supportop, Sources of Recruitsop, Spearsop, Special Purpose Houseop, Special Purpose Sitesop, Specialisaed Military Vesselsop, Specialized Government Buildingsop, Standing Armiesop, Steelop, Steelop, Stone Walls (mortared)op, Stone Walls (non-mortared)op, Store of Wealthop, Supra-Polity Relationsop, Swordsop, Symbolic Buildingsop, Tension siege enginesop, Territoryop, Timeop, Tokensop, Trading Emporiaop, Uniformity of Equipmentop, Utilitarian Public Buildingsop, Volumeop, War Clubsop, Wars between different religious sectsop, Wars between different world religionsop, Wars between groups from different archaeological culturesop, Wars involving groups with different dialectsop, Wars involving groups with different language familiesop, Wars involving groups with different languagesop, Wars of world religion against tribal religionop, Wars on Civilization/Barbarism frontierop, Wars on agricultural frontierop, Wars on steppe frontierop, Wars within same Ethnic Groupop, Weightop, Wood, Bark, etc.op, Wooden Palisadesop, Written Recordsop, associated with eventop
is in range of
relatedToOrganisationop
is disjoint with
Unit of territoryc

Organisation Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OrganisationVariable

This is the class of seshat variables that have a seshat:Organisation as their value type. Adding this class allows us to model super-properties that respect the seshat variable structure based on multiple inheritance to deal with temporal scoping, uncertainty while specifying a domain.

is equivalent to
Organisation Bag of Values Restriction and Organisation Max Value Restriction and Organisation Min Value Restriction and Organisation Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec

Orthodoxy Checks Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OrthodoxyChecksVariable

Holds the seshat:OrthodoxyChecks value for a seshat:RitualRecord.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is in range of
Orthodoxy Checksop

Orthopraxy Checks Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OrthopraxyChecksVariable

Holds the seshat:OrthopraxyChecks value for a seshat:RitualRecord.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is in range of
Orthopraxy Checksop

Otherc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OtherParticipationCost

List the other(s).

has super-classes
Participation Costc

Otherc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#otherAnimialsInWarfare

Holds this value. Annotation including examples are mandatory.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
object property

Other Dysphoricc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OtherDysphoric

List the others.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

Other Euphoricc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OtherEuphoric

List the others.

has super-classes
Euphoricc

Painc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Pain

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

Participantc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Participant

This group of participants does not include the ritual specialists, like priests. Highly engaged audiences (audiences who are processing, jeering, ...) are considered as participants. Audiences consisting of passive spectators or witnesses are coded as seshat:Audience. Used to scope the definition of a seshat:ritualFrequency or seshat:ritualInclusiveness value.

has super-classes
Ritual Actorc

Participation Costc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ParticipationCost

Defines the type of participation costs for rituals.

has sub-classes
Currencyc, Health Costsc, Otherc, Property/Valuable Itemsc, Sacrificec

Poisoning/Dysphoria-causing Drugsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Poisoning

e.g. vomiting.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

Political Authorityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#PoliticalAuthority

A derived concept covering human social groups with some self-governing powers.

has super-classes
Organisationc
has sub-classes
Polityc, Quasi-polityc, Sub-polityc
is in domain of
Capitalop, Preceeding (quasi)polityop, Scale of supracultural interactionop, Succeeding (quasi)polityop, Supracultural Entityop
is in range of
Has Ritualop

Political Authority Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#PoliticalAuthorityVariable

The value of a seshat variable that refers to a seshat:Political Authority entity.

is equivalent to
Political Authority Bag of Values Restriction and Political Authority Max Value Restriction and Political Authority Min Value Restriction and Political Authority Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Preceeding (quasi)polityop, Succeeding (quasi)polityop, War Beligerentsop

Polityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Polity

A polity is defined as an independent political unit. Kinds of polities range from villages (local communities) through simple and complex chiefdoms to states and empires. A polity can be either centralized or not (e.g., organized as a confederation). What distinguishes a polity from other human groupings and organizations is that it is politically independent of any overarching authority; it possesses sovereignty. Polities are defined spatially by the area enclosed within a boundary on the world map. There may be more than one such areas. Polities are dynamical entities, and thus their geographical extent may change with time. Thus, typically each polity will be defined by a set of multiple boundaries, each for a specified period of time. For prehistoric periods and for NGAs populated by a multitude of small-scale polities we use a variant called quasi-polity.

has super-classes
Political Authorityc

Polygon Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#PolygonVariable

Seshat variable to hold polygon value of a Territory

has super-classes
variablec
is in domain of
polygon valuedp
is in range of
polygonop

Population Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#PopulationVariable

Seshat variable to hold a population size value.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal non negative integer data variablec
is in range of
Army Sizeop, Largest Fielded Armyop, Polity Populationop

procurement of equipment valuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ProcurementOfEquipmentValue

has super-classes
{ By State , By Soldiers , By Soldiers But Compensated by the state and equipment (e.g. horses) replaced if lost. }
is in range of
Procurement of equipment Valueop
has members
By Soldiersni

Procurement Of Equipment Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ProcurementOfEquipmentVariable

Procurement of equipment Variable for a Polity.

is equivalent to
Procurement Of Equipment Bag of Values Restriction and Procurement Of Equipment Max Value Restriction and Procurement Of Equipment Min Value Restriction and Procurement Of Equipment Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in domain of
Procurement of equipment Valueop
is in range of
Procurement of equipmentop

Property/Valuable Itemsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Property

No entry in codebook.

has super-classes
Participation Costc

Quasi-polityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#QuasiPolity

The polity-based approach is not feasible for those periods when a NGA is divided up among a multitude of small-scale polities (e.g., independent villages or even many small chiefdoms). In this instance we use the concept of 'quasi-polity'. Similarly, for societies known only archaeologically we may not be able to establish the boundaries of polities, even approximately. Quasi-polity is defined as a cultural area with some degree of cultural (including linguistic, if known) homogeneity that is distinct from surrounding areas. For example, the Marshall Islands before German occupation had no overarching native or colonial authority (chiefs controlled various subsets of islands and atolls) and therefore it was not a polity. But it was a quasi-polity because of the significant cultural and linguistic uniformity. The idea is to collect data for the quasi-polity as a whole. This way we can integrate over (often patchy) data from different sites and different polities to estimate what a 'generic' polity was like. Accordingly, when coding, for example, social complexity variables, enter data not for the whole NGA but for a 'typical' polity in it. For example, when coding for a quasi-polity polity territory is not the area of the NGA as a whole, but the average or typical area of polities within the NGA.

has super-classes
Political Authorityc

relationship To Preceeding Political Authority Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#relationshipToPreceedingPoliticalAuthorityVariable

The seshat variable for describing this property.

is equivalent to
relationship To Preceeding Political Authority Bag of Values Restriction and relationship To Preceeding Political Authority Max Value Restriction and relationship To Preceeding Political Authority Min Value Restriction and relationship To Preceeding Political Authority Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Relationship to preceding (quasi)polityop

Religious Levels Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ReligiousLevelsVariable

Seshat variable to hold the Religious levels value.

has super-classes
variablec

Religious systemc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ReligiousSystem

Religious System (RS). This unit is defined in ways that are analogous to a polity, except it reflects religious, rather than political authority. Religious systems are dynamical and are typically defined by a set of dated boundaries. Unlike polities, religious systems often overlap with each other.

has super-classes
Interest groupc

Risk of Deathc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RiskOfDeath

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

Ritualc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Ritual

A Specific Ritual.

has sub-classes
Collective Ritualc

Ritual Actorc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualActor

Defines the set of possible actors in rituals. Used to scope the definition of a seshat:ritualFrequency or seshat:ritualInclusiveness value.

has sub-classes
Audiencec, Participantc, Ritual Specialistc

Ritual Cohesionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualCohesion

Defines the set of types of cohesion that are possible among members of a ritual.

is equivalent to
{ Willingness to Die for Each Other , Enemies of any Group Member are my Enemies , Honour Code , Other Cohesion , Oath Taking , Obligations to Each Other's Families }
has members
Enemies of any Group Member are my Enemiesni, Honour Codeni, Oath Takingni, Obligations to Each Other's Familiesni, Other Cohesionni, Willingness to Die for Each Otherni

Ritual Cohesion Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualCohesionVariable

Holds a boolean ritual cohesion value

has super-classes
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is in range of
Cohesionop

Ritual Duration Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualDurationVariable

Seshat variable for defining ritual durations using xsd:duration.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal duration data variablec
is in range of
Ritual Durationop

Ritual Elementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualElement

has sub-classes
Dysphoricc, Euphoricc

Ritual Element Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualElementVariable

Holds a boolean ritual element value

has super-classes
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is in range of
Ritual Elementop

Ritual Frequency Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualFrequencyVariable

The human-scale temporal frequency of a ritual

has super-classes
Human Scale Temporal Frequency Variablec
is in range of
Frequencyop

ritual group valuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualGroupValue

has super-classes
{ Whole Polity , Ruling Elites , Dominant Military Unit , Another Kind of Interest Group , All Adult Males , Dominant Ethnic Group }
has members
All Adult Malesni, Another Kind of Interest Groupni, Dominant Ethnic Groupni, Dominant Military Unitni, Ruling Elitesni, Whole Polityni

Ritual Group Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualGroupVariable

Defines the inclusiveness of a ritual in terms of where members of a class are recruited from.

is equivalent to
Ritual Group Bag of Values Restriction and Ritual Group Max Value Restriction and Ritual Group Min Value Restriction and Ritual Group Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Ritual Inclusivnessop

Ritual Name Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualNameVariable

The name of a ritual. In the narrative part, also give a brief description of the ritual.

has super-classes
Name Variablec
is in range of
Ritual Nameop

Ritual of the Official Cultc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#OfficialCultRitual

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective ritual practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

has super-classes
Collective Ritualc
has sub-classes
Largest Scale Ritualc, Most Euphoric Ritualc, Most Frequent Ritualc, Most Widespread Ritualc

Ritual Record Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualRecord

A grouping of ritual variables that forms a template for completing the description of a single ritual.

is equivalent to
Orthopraxy Checksop only orthopraxy check variablec
Ritual Nameop only Ritual Name Variablec
Cohesionop only Ritual Cohesionc and Ritual Cohesion Variablec
Costs of Participationop only Costs of Participation Variablec and Participation Costc
Ritual Elementop only Ritual Elementc and Ritual Element Variablec
Ritual Durationop only Ritual Duration Variablec
ritual inclusivenessop only Ritual Actorc and Ritual Group Variablec
Typical Size of Participating Groupop only Typical Size of Participating Group Variablec
Orthodoxy Checksop only orthodoxy check variablec
Frequencyop only Ritual Actorc and Ritual Frequency Variablec
has super-classes
Entity Componentc
is in domain of
Cohesionop, Costs of Participationop, Frequencyop, Orthodoxy Checksop, Orthopraxy Checksop, Ritual Durationop, Ritual Elementop, Ritual Inclusivnessop, Ritual Nameop, Typical Size of Participating Groupop

Ritual Specialistc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#RitualSpecialist

A ritual specialist (e.g. priest). Used to scope the definition of a seshat:ritualFrequency or seshat:ritualInclusiveness value.

has super-classes
Ritual Actorc

Sacrificec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Sacrifice

A set of participation costs for rituals.

has super-classes
Participation Costc
has sub-classes
Animal Sacrificec, Human Sacrificec

Scale of supracultural interaction Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ScaleOfSCInteractionVariable

Seshat variable for scale of supracultural interaction

has super-classes
uncertain temporal unsigned long data variablec
is in range of
Scale of supracultural interactionop

Seshat Entitityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Entity

This is the super-class of all primary Seshat entities - the units of data collection. For example Organisations, Polities, Territories and NGAs.

has super-classes
entityc
has sub-classes
Entity Componentc, Unit of territoryc, temporal entityc
is in domain of
Alternative nameop, Has Componentop, In UTM Zoneop, Mapop, Nameop, has variableop, relatedToOrganisationop
has members
Buildingni, Languageni, Unit of Measureni

Seshat variable for recoding a time in days as a measure of speed.c back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#TimeDaysVariable

has super-classes
uncertain temporal float data variablec
is in range of
Fastest Individual Communicationop, Maximum Logistical Lagop

Sexc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Sex

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Euphoricc

Siegec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Siege

Note that 'siege' is a generic name for any interaction between an army and a settlement belonging to opposing factions. If an army entered a hostile city without resistance, this is siege.

has super-classes
eventc
is in domain of
Battle Aftermathop, Besiegerop, Fortress, castle, citadel? op, Inhabitants Surrenderop, Raidop, Siege Durationop, Siege Durationop, Siege Failsop, Treachery op

Siege Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#SiegeVariable

This is the class of seshat variables that have a seshat:Siege as their value type.

is equivalent to
Siege Bag of Values Restriction and Siege Max Value Restriction and Siege Min Value Restriction and Siege Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Siegeop

Singingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Singing

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Euphoricc

source of support valuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#SourceOfSupportValue

has super-classes
{ State Salary , Governed Population , Land , No Source of Support }
has members
Governed Populationni, Landni, No Source of Supportni, State Salaryni

Source Of Support Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#SourceOfSupportVariable

The source of support variable for Seshat:Organisations.

is equivalent to
Source Of Support Bag of Values Restriction and Source Of Support Max Value Restriction and Source Of Support Min Value Restriction and Source Of Support Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Source of supportop

sources of recruits valuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#SourcesOfRecruitsValue

has super-classes
{ Recruits into a Professional Corps:Domestic , Recruits into a Professional Corps:Foreign , Mass Mobilization , Regular Draft , Mercenaries }
is in range of
Sources of Recruits Valueop
has members
By Soldiers But Compensated by the state and equipment (e.g. horses) replaced if lost.ni, By Stateni, Mass Mobilizationni, Mercenariesni, Recruits into a Professional Corps:Domesticni, Recruits into a Professional Corps:Foreignni, Regular Draftni

Sources Of Recruits Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#SourcesOfRecruitsVariable

A defined set of values for the sources of military recruits.

is equivalent to
Sources Of Recruits Bag of Values Restriction and Sources Of Recruits Max Value Restriction and Sources Of Recruits Min Value Restriction and Sources Of Recruits Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in domain of
Sources of Recruits Valueop
is in range of
Sources of Recruitsop

Sub-polityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#SubPolity

A derived concept covering human social groups that are temporal, geographic or political components of other human social groups.

has super-classes
Political Authorityc

supra Polity Relations Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#supraPolityRelationsVariable

The seshat variable for describing this property.

is equivalent to
supra Polity Relations Bag of Values Restriction and supra Polity Relations Max Value Restriction and supra Polity Relations Min Value Restriction and supra Polity Relations Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Supra-Polity Relationsop

Supracultural Entityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#SupraculturalEntity

Political Authority entities are often embedded within larger-scale cultural groupings of polities or quasipolities. These are sometimes referred to as 'civilizations'. For example, medieval European kingdoms were part of Latin Christendom. During the periods of disunity in China, warring states there, nevertheless, belonged to the same Chinese cultural sphere. Archaeologists often use 'archaeological traditions' to denote such large-scale cultural entities (for example, Peregrine's Atlas of Cultural Evolution). Note, 'supracultural entity' refers to cultural interdependence, and is distinct from a political confederation or alliance, which should be coded under 'supra-polity relations.'.

has super-classes
Organisationc

Supracultural Entity Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#SupraculturalEntityVariable

Seshat variable to hold a supracultural entity.

is equivalent to
Supracultural Entity Bag of Values Restriction and Supracultural Entity Max Value Restriction and Supracultural Entity Min Value Restriction and Supracultural Entity Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Supracultural Entityop

Synchronous Movementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#SynchronousMovement

e.g. dancing or marching in unison.

has super-classes
Euphoricc

temporal entityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#TemporalEntity

An abstract concept describing anything that must have temporal bounds.

has super-classes
Seshat Entitityc
has sub-classes
Organisationc, eventc
is in domain of
Durationop

Temporal Instant Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#TemporalInstantVariable

A variable holding a date or time associated with a seshat entity.

is equivalent to
Temporal Instant Bag of Values Restriction and Temporal Instant Max Value Restriction and Temporal Instant Min Value Restriction and Temporal Instant Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Peak dateop

Territory Area Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#TerritoryAreaVariable

Seshat variable to hold a territory area value.

is equivalent to
Territory Area Bag of Values Restriction and Territory Area Max Value Restriction and Territory Area Min Value Restriction and Territory Area Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Territoryop

Territory Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#TerritoryVariable

Seshat variable to hold a territory value.

is equivalent to
Territory Bag of Values Restriction and Territory Max Value Restriction and Territory Min Value Restriction and Territory Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
Territoryop

Time Years Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#TimeYearsVariable

has super-classes
uncertain temporal non negative integer data variablec

Typical Size of Participating Group Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#TypicalSizeOfParticipatingGroupVariable

Seshat variable for defining number of people involved in a ritual.

has super-classes
uncertain temporal non negative integer data variablec
is in range of
Typical Size of Participating Groupop

Unit of territoryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Territory

An abstract concept describing geographical locations or areas.

has super-classes
Seshat Entitityc
has sub-classes
Free form areac, collection of territoriesc
is in domain of
Cityop, Duration of fieldop, Territoryop, World Regionop, polygonop
is in range of
Exists withinop, includes unit of territoryop
is disjoint with
Organisationc

UTM Zone And Lat Band Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#UTMZoneAndLatBandVariable

This defines a single UTM Zone and a single latitude band from the MGRS geospatial reference system.

is equivalent to
UTM Zone And Lat Band Bag of Values Restriction and UTM Zone And Lat Band Max Value Restriction and UTM Zone And Lat Band Min Value Restriction and UTM Zone And Lat Band Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in range of
In UTM Zoneop

Vigil/Sleep Deprivationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Vigil

No codebook entry.

has super-classes
Dysphoricc

warc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#War

A derived concept covering historical wars.

has super-classes
eventc
is in domain of
Annexationop, Deportationop, Destructionop, Enslavementop, Ethnocideop, Expulsionop, Exterminationop, General massacreop, Imprisonmentop, Inter-polity Warsop, Internal Warsop, Intra-elite Conflictsop, Land Battleop, Lootingop, Mass Burialsop, Meta-conflictop, Military Revoltsop, Mutilationop, Naval Engagementop, Naval Engagementsop, Noneop, Number of Land Battlesop, Number of Siegesop, Pictorial Evidence of Warfareop, Popular Uprisingsop, Rapeop, Sackop, Separatist Rebellionsop, Setllement Destructionop, Siegeop, Skeletal Evidence of Violenceop, Targeted massacreop, Tortureop, War Beligerentsop, War Dateop

World Region Variablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#WorldRegionVariable

Not defined in codebook.

is equivalent to
World Region Bag of Values Restriction and World Region Max Value Restriction and World Region Min Value Restriction and World Region Value Restriction and uncertain temporal variablec
has super-classes
uncertain temporal variablec
is in domain of
World Region Valueop
is in range of
World Regionop

Object Properties

Administrative levelsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#administrativeLevels

levels. An example of hierarchy for a state society could be (5) the overall ruler, (4) provincial/regional governors, (3) district heads, (2) town mayors, (1) village heads.

Note: Often there are more than one concurrent administrative hierarchy. In the example above the hierarchy refers to the territorial government. In addition, the ruler may have a hierarchically organized central bureaucracy located in the capital. For example, (4)the overall ruler, (3) chiefs of various ministries, (2) mid-level bureaucrats, (1) scribes and clerks. In the narrative paragraph detail what is known about both hierarchies. The machine-readable code should reflect the largest number (the longer chain of command)

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Levels Variablec

Alternative nameop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#alternativeName

The name of a seshat Entity. Generally same as the name of the wiki page.

has super-properties
has general variableop
has domain
Seshat Entitityc
has range
Name Variablec

Animals used for agricultural laborop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#animalAgriLabour

Presence of this energy sector use of animal energy. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Animals used for transportop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#animalTransport

Presence of this energy sector use of animal energy. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Animals used in the militaryop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#animalsMilitary

Presence of this energy sector use of animal energy. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Annexationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#annexation

A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Areaop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#area

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Measurement System Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Army Sizeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#armySize

The total number of personnel in the armed forces. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Population Variablec

Articlesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#articles

(example: axes, cattle). absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

associated with eventop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#associatedWithEvent

A property used to associate a Organisation with an Event.

has domain
Organisationc
has range
eventc

Atlatlop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#atlatl

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Battle Aftermathop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#battleAftermath

City was attacked in the aftermath of a battle and there were consequences for the city. Coded present usually means this is not a formal siege and the battle has been coded separately. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Siegec
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Battle Axesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#battleAxes

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Belligerent A Army Lossesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#belligerentAArmyLosses

We group all belligerents into group A and group B.People

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
population count variablec

Belligerent A Army Sizeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#belligerentAArmySize

We group all belligerents into group A and group B. Combine all polities on the side A.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
population count variablec

Belligerent A Percent Army Lostop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#belligerentAPercentArmyLost

We group all belligerents into group A and group B. Percent. Estimate. Very often exact numbers, or estimated numbers, are not available. However, there is nearly always enough information to provide a percentage estimate. For example, if the army was described as 'annihilated' you would code 100 (for 100%). If casualties were described as light, code 5. If they were heavy, [25-30] etc.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
non negative integer variablec

Belligerent B Army Lossesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#belligerentBArmyLosses

We group all belligerents into group A and group B.People

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
population count variablec

Belligerent B Army Sizeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#belligerentBArmySize

We group all belligerents into group A and group B. Combine all polities on the side B.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
population count variablec

Belligerent B Percent Army Lostop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#belligerentBPercentArmyLost

We group all belligerents into group A and group B. Percent. Estimate. Very often exact numbers, or estimated numbers, are not available. However, there is nearly always enough information to provide a percentage estimate. For example, if the army was described as 'annihilated' you would code 100 (for 100%). If casualties were described as light, code 5. If they were heavy, [25-30] etc.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
non negative integer variablec

Besiegerop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#besieger

Name of the polity that is outside the city wanting to get in.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Siegec
has range
political organisation variablec

Billon currencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#billonCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Billon currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Brestplatesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#brestplates

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Bridgesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#bridges

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. built and/or maintained by the polity (that is, code 'present' even if the polity did not build a road, but devotes resources to maintaining it).

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Bronzeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#bronze

Military use of this metal.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Bronze currencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#bronzeCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Bronze currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Bronze workingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#bronzeWorking

Metallurgy sector. Bronze production. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Burial Siteop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#burialSite

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. Dissociated from settlement, has monumental features.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Calendarop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#calendar

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Camelsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#camels

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Canalsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#canals

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. built and/or maintained by the polity (that is, code 'present' even if the polity did not build a road, but devotes resources to maintaining it).

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Capitalop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#capital

The city where the ruler spends most of its time. If there were more than one capital supply all names and enclose in curly braces. For example, {Susa; Pasargadae; Persepolis; Ecbatana; Babylon}. Note that the capital may be different from the largest city (see below).

'Capital' may be difficult to code for archaeologically known societies. If there is reasonable basis to believe that the largest known settlement was the seat of the ruler code it as capital (and indicate uncertainty in the narrative paragraph). Archaeologists are able to recognize special architectural structures, such as a ceremonial centres and some kind of citadels or palaces. These features could be recognized with certainty after a careful study of the whole region and the settlement network. If such an inference cannot be made, code as 'unknown' (again, the largest settlement is coded elsewhere).

Ceremonial Siteop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ceremonialSite

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Chainmailop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#chainmail

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Cityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#city

Used to define the cities that exist within a Territory/NGA

Coalop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#coal

Presence of this energy sector fuel. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Cohesionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ritualCohesion

Cohesion among performers of the ritual.

Communal Buildingsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#communalBuildings

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. This code distinguishes between settlements that consist of only private households (code 'absent') and settlements where there are communal buildings which could be used for a variety of uses (code 'present').

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Compelx Fortificationsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#complexFortifications

When there are more than one concentric ring of walls. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Composite bowop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#compositeBow

This is a bow made from several different materials, usually wood, horn, and sinew. Also known as laminated bow. Recurved bows should be coded here as well, because usually they are composite bows. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Controlsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#controls

A property that indicates control of a Territory by an Organisation

has super-properties
Exists withinop

Copperop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#copper

Military use of this metal.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Copperop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#copperWorking

Metallurgy sector. Copper production. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Copper currencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#copperCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Copper currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Cost (building)op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#cost

The cost of a building in people-years.

has range
Cost Variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Costs of Participationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#costsOfParticipation

The costs of participation in a ritual.

Couriersop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#couriers

Full-time professional couriers. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Courtsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#courts

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. Buildings specialized for legal proceedings only.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Crossbowop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#crossbow

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Daggersop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#daggers

Bladed weapons shorter than 50 cm. Includes knives. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Dateop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#battleDate

No definition in codebook.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
Duration Variablec

Debit and Credit Structuresop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#debitAndCredit

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Degree of centralizationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#degreeOfCentralization

The degree to which the center of a polity exercized control over regional subpolities. Some polities such as the Medieval German Empire or China under the Zhou Dynasty began as reasonably coherent states, but with time gradually lost cohesion. The 'Degree of centralization' variable allows to capture these transitions (by coding time periods when the polity transitions, for example, from a 'confederated state' to 'loose' and finally to 'nominal' degree of centralization. The allowed values are: 'quasipolity' = or 'none'. Use if the NGA is inhabited by many politically independent groups 'nominal' = regional rulers pay only nominal allegiance to the overall ruler and maintain independence on all important aspects of governing, including taxation and warfare. (example: Japan during the Sengoku period) 'loose' = the central government exercises a certain degree of control, especially over military matters and international relations. Otherwise the regional rulers are left alone (example: European 'feudalism' after the collapse of the Carolingian empire) 'confederated state' = regions enjoy a large degree of autonomy in internal (regional) government. In particular, the regional governors are either hereditary rulers, or are elected by regional elites or by the population of the region; and regional governments can levy and dispose of regional taxes. Use this category for the more centralized 'feudal states'. 'unitary state' = regional governors are appointed and removed by the central authorities, taxes are imposed by, and transmitted to the center. 'none' - not defined in codebook

Deportationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#deportation

The population is expelled and moved elsewhere within the polity. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Destructionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#destruction

By burning or otherwise destroying houses, walls, public buildings, and other permanent structures. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Ditchop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ditch

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Dogsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#dogs

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Domestic miningop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#domesticMining

Mining sector. Mines are known to have been exploited within the NGA territory. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Donkeyssop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#donkeys

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Drinking Water Supply Systemsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#drinkingWaterSupplySystems

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Durationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#duration

A property used to define the temporal bounds of a seshat:TemporalEntity. For example, corresponds to the Duration for a Polity from the Seshat codebook.

has super-properties
has general variableop
has domain
temporal entityc
has range
Duration Variablec

Duration of fieldop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#durationOfField

Feature of Cultivation: how many years are crops grown in a field/garden before it is left fallow or abandoned? If a range of values are given, provide the range as the code and provide details.

has super-properties
has agriculture variableop
has domain
Unit of territoryc
has range
uncertain temporal non negative integer data variablec

Earth Rampartsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#earthRamparts

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Electrum currencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#electrumCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Electrum currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Elephantsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#elephants

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Enclosuresop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#enclosures

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. An 'enclosure' is clearly demarcated special-purpose area. It can be separated from surrounding land by earthworks (including banks or ditches), walls, or fencing. It may be as small as a few meters across, or encompass many hectares. It is non-residential, but could serve numerous purposes, both practical (animal pens) as well as religious and ceremonial.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Enslavementop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#enslavement

Widespread or systematic. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Entertainment Buildingsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#entertainmentBuildings

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. These include theaters, arenas, race tracks.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Ethnocideop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ethnocide

A systematic program to replace the culture of the defeated with the culture of the victors. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Examination Systemop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#examinationSystem

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. The paradigmatic example is the Chinese imperial system.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Exists withinop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#existsWithin

A property used to associate an Organisation with a Territory that it somehow occupies.

has super-properties
has variableop
has sub-properties
Controlsop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Unit of territoryc

Expulsionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#expulsion

The population is expelled from the territory. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Extent (building)op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#extent

The the horizontal dimension along the longest axis of a building in meters.

Exterminationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#extermination

An attempt is made to eliminate the population completely. The estimated proportion of population killed/enslaved is over 50 percent. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Fastest Individual Communicationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#fastestIndividualCommunication

This is the fastest time (in days) an individual can travel from the capital city to the most outlying provincial capital (if one exists), usually keeping within the boundaries of the polity. This might be by ship, horse, horse relay, or on foot, or a combination.

Fictionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#fiction

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Food Storage Sitesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#foodStorageSites

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Foreign Coinsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#foreignCoins

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Formal Legal Codeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#formalLegalCode

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. Usually, but not always written down. If not written down, code it 'present' when a uniform legal system is established by oral transmission (e.g., officials are taught the rules, or the laws are announced in a public space). Provide a short description

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Fortified Campsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#fortifiedCamps

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Fortress, castle, citadel? op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#fortress

Is this siege primarily of a fortress, castle or citadel rather than a walled town or city. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Siegec
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Frequencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ritualFrequency

aily/weekly/monthly/yearly/once per generation/once in a lifetime. Code the frequency of participating in a ritual from the perspective of the participants. This group of participants does not include the ritual specialists, like priests. Highly engaged audiences (audiences who are processing, jeering, ...) are considered as participants. Audiences consisting of passive spectators or witnesses are coded for in the next variable. When it is difficult to distinguish between a highly engaged audience and an audience consisting of passive spectators, code these audiences here. Code the frequency of participating in a ritual from the perspective of a typical member of an audience consisting of passive spectators or witnesses. Code the frequency of participating in a ritual from the perspective of the ritual specialist (e.g. priest).

Full-time bureaucratsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#fulltimeBureaucrats

Full-time specialists absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

General massacreop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#generalMassacre

The estimated proportion of population killed is between 10 and 50 percent. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

General Postal Serviceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#generalPostalService

This refers to a postal service that not only serves the ruler's needs, but carries mail for private citizens. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Geometricalop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#geometrical

For example, degree. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Measurement System Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Goldop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#goldCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Gold currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Gunpowder siege artilleryop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#gunpowderSiegeArtillery

For example, cannon, mortars. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Handheld firearmsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#handheldFirearms

E.g., muskets, pistols, and rifles. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

has agriculture variableop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasAgricultureVariable

This sub-property of seshat:hasVariable provides a way to define seshat:Territory variables as members of the set of agriculture variables.

has super-properties
has variableop
has sub-properties
Duration of fieldop

Has Componentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasComponent

This relation is used to bind a component of an Entity to that Entity.

has sub-properties
Has Ritualop
has domain
Seshat Entitityc
has range
Entity Componentc

has economy and technology variableop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasEconomyTechnologyVariable

This sub-property of seshat:hasVariable provides a way to define seshat:Territory variables as members of the set of economy and technology variables.

has super-properties
has variableop

has general variableop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasGeneralVariable

This sub-property of seshat:hasVariable provides a way to define seshat:Organisation variables as members of the set of general variables.

Has Ritualop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasRitual

Relates a RitualRecord to an Entity.

has ritual variableop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasRitualVariable

This sub-property of seshat:hasVariable provides a way to define seshat:Organisation variables as members of the set of ritual variables.

has social complexity variableop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasSocialComplexityVariable

This sub-property of seshat:hasVariable provides a way to define seshat:Organisation variables as members of the set of social complexity variables.

has variableop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasVariable

The basic property relation for seshat datasets. Used to relate a seshat entity and its value with qualified information, e.g. uncertainty, temporal bounds, about the value. All seshat variable properties inherit from this property.

has warfare variableop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasWarfareVariable

This sub-property of seshat:hasVariable provides a way to define seshat:Organisation variables as members of the set of warfare variables.

has super-properties
has variableop
has sub-properties
Annexationop, Army Sizeop, Atlatlop, Battle Axesop, Brestplatesop, Bronzeop, Camelsop, Chainmailop, Compelx Fortificationsop, Composite bowop, Copperop, Crossbowop, Daggersop, Deportationop, Destructionop, Ditchop, Dogsop, Donkeyssop, Earth Rampartsop, Elephantsop, Enslavementop, Ethnocideop, Expulsionop, Exterminationop, Fortified Campsop, General massacreop, Gunpowder siege artilleryop, Handheld firearmsop, Helmetsop, Horsesop, Imprisonmentop, Inter-polity Warsop, Internal Warsop, Intra-elite Conflictsop, Ironop, Javelinsop, Lamilar Armourop, Land Battleop, Largest Fielded Armyop, Leather, clothop, Limb Protectionop, Long Wallsop, Lootingop, Mass Burialsop, Maximum Logistical Lagop, Merchant ships pressed into serviceop, Military Revoltsop, Moatop, Modern Fortificationsop, Mutilationop, Naval Engagementop, Naval Engagementsop, Noneop, Number of Land Battlesop, Number of Siegesop, Otherop, Other Handheld Weaponop, Other Thrown Weaponsop, Pictorial Evidence of Warfareop, Plate Armourop, Polearmsop, Popular Uprisingsop, Procurement of equipmentop, Rapeop, Sackop, Scaled Armourop, Self bowop, Separatist Rebellionsop, Setllement Destructionop, Settlements in a defensive positionop, Shieldsop, Siegeop, Skeletal Evidence of Violenceop, Sling siege enginesop, Slingsop, Small Vessels (canoes, etc.)op, Sources of Recruitsop, Spearsop, Specialisaed Military Vesselsop, Standing Armiesop, Steelop, Steelop, Stone Walls (mortared)op, Stone Walls (non-mortared)op, Swordsop, Targeted massacreop, Tension siege enginesop, Tortureop, Uniformity of Equipmentop, War Clubsop, Wars between different religious sectsop, Wars between different world religionsop, Wars between groups from different archaeological culturesop, Wars involving groups with different dialectsop, Wars involving groups with different language familiesop, Wars involving groups with different languagesop, Wars of world religion against tribal religionop, Wars on Civilization/Barbarism frontierop, Wars on agricultural frontierop, Wars on steppe frontierop, Wars within same Ethnic Groupop, Wood, Bark, etc.op, Wooden Palisadesop

Has Writing Systen Variableop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasWritingSystemVariable

Code the sub-properties as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has sub-properties
Mnemonic devicesop, Non-phonetic alphabetic writingop, Non-written Recordsop, Phonetic alphabetic writingop, Scriptop, Written Recordsop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Heigth (building)op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#height

The height of a building in meters.

Helmetsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#helmets

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Historyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#history

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Horsesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#horses

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Imprisonmentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#imprisonment

Widespread or systematic. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

In UTM Zoneop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#inUTMZone

List only one, usually where the capital city is located.

includes unit of territoryop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#includesTerritory

A property used to associate a CollectionOfTerritories with its consituent UnitsOfTerritory.

Indigenous Coinsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#indigenousCoins

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Inhabitants Surrenderop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#inhabitantsSurrender

Did the inhabitants surrender? absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Siegec
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Intensty of miningop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#intenseMining

Mining sector. There is evidence for mines within polity territory being exhausted. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Inter-polity Warsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#interpolityWars

Code present, if at least one war during this period was an external (interstate) war. Provide an example. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown . War codebook adds: This variable tells us whether this was an external (interstate) war (code Present), or internal (civil) war (code Absent).

The next four variables are relevant only if the war was internal (however, some external wars have an internal component, so it is possible to code Inter-polity = Present and Popular uprising = Present). Because civil wars often involve several dimensions, code 'Present' as many of the following variables as apply.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Internal Warsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#internalWars

Code present, if at least one war during this period was an external (interstate) war. Provide an example. Code this variable as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Intra-elite Conflictsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#intraeliteConflicts

Between different elite factions. Provides additional description of internal wars. Because civil wars often involve several dimensions, code 'Present' as many of the variables Intra-elite conflicts, Popular uprisings, Military revolts, Separatist rebellions as apply. . Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Ironop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#iron

Military use of this metal.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Iron currencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ironCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Iron currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Iron workingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ironWorking

Metallurgy sector. Iron production. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Irrigation Systemsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#irrigationSystems

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Javelinsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#javelins

Includes thrown spears. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Judgesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#judges

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. This refers only to full-time professional judges.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Knowledge/Information Buildingsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#knowledgeBuildings

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. These include astronomic observatories, libraries, and museums.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Lamilar Armourop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#laminarArmour

also known as banded mail, example: lorica segmentata. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Land Battleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#landBattle

List Land Battles here, with each Land Battles name linked to a data sheet describing the Land Battle. See the template in the following section.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
Land Battle Variablec

Languageop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#language

List the language(s) used polity-wide for administration, religion, and military affairs. Also list the language spoken by the majority of the population, if different from the above.

has super-properties
has general variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Language Variablec

Largest communication distanceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#largestCommunicationDistance

Distance in kilometers between the capital and the furthest provincial capital. Use the figure for the most direct land and/or sea route that was available.

As an alternative for prehistoric communities, measure the distance between largest quasi-capital and furthest village within the quasi-polity.

Largest Fielded Armyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#largestFieldedArmy

The size of the largest army that fought in a specific battle. Also provide details about its composition, if known (e.g., the numbers of infantry, cavalry, artillery, etc). Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Population Variablec

Largest Scale Collective Ritual of the Official Cultop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#largestScaleCollectiveRitualOfOfficialCult

Code the variables below for the collective ritual of the official cult that is performed on the largest scale. Largest scale refers to the largest number of people a ritual brings together in a single location. If there are several rituals that have the same level of scale, code the most frequent one.

has super-properties
Has Ritualop

Largest Settlementop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#largestSettlement

Note that this could be different from the capital (coded under General). If possible, indicate the dynamics (that is, how population changed during the temporal period of the polity). Note that we are also building a city database - you should consult it as it may already have the needed data.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
City Variablec

Latitudeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#latitude

Use online latitude/longitude finder. Example: [1] When possible, provide name of nearest town or state whether it is an estimate or very approximate location. Also note if there is any academic debate whether this is the correct battle site.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
integer variablec

Leather, clothop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#leatherCloth

For example, leather cuirass, quilted cotton armor. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Lengthop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#length

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Measurement System Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Limb Protectionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#limbProtection

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Linguistic Familyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#linguisticFamily

A link between a language and a linguistic family.

has domain
Language
has range
Linguistic Familyc

Lists, tables, and classificationsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#listsTables

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Logarithmic magnitudeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#logarithmicMagnitude

Decimal logarithm of the total number of forces involved. To indicate the rough order of magnitude, it can be rounded to the next whole number as follows:

1 = 10 [4-30]

2 = 100 [31-300]

3 = 1000 [301-3,000]

4 = 10000 [3,001-30,000]

etc. .

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
non negative integer variablec

Long Wallsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#longWalls

km. These are fortifications that were used not to protect a specific city or town, but a large territory. Examples include the Great Wall of China. Provide an estimate in km of the extent of the longest of such fortification systems. If not present, enter '0'

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Linear Dimension Variablec

Longitudeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#longitude

No definition in codebook.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
integer variablec

Lootingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#looting

The population is sytematically plundered. May involve some property destruction, but there is no systematic destruction of permanent structures (see below). A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Mapop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#map

For quasipolities mark not only the range but also the neighboring quasipolities and the main archaeological sites.

has super-properties
has general variableop
has domain
Seshat Entitityc
has range
Map Variablec

Marketsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#markets

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Mass Burialsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#massBurials

In the explanatory paragraph indicate frequency, if known. Explain the nature of evidence (e.g., arrow points embedded in bones. The strategy right now is to simply code archaeological proxies as present/absent. However, in the explanatory paragraphs comment on any quantifyable features of data. For example, what proportion of skeletons bear evidence of violence. Eventually we may convert these notes into quantiative data. Code this variables as true/false for absent/present.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
boolean variablec

Maximum Logistical Lagop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#maximumLogisticalLag

The longest time it takes (in days) to move an army from the capital city to any provincial capital (if one exists), via movements usually within the boundaries of the polity. This variable differs from the 'fastest individual communication' variable in two ways: 1) the most distant provincial capital in space (km) is not always the most distant in time (days); 2) moving an army is much harder than a single individual so the value can be different due to logistical factors. Seasons (weather) may affect travel time so in some circumstances it may be appropriate to code a range of values, between summer and winter. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

Measurement System Variableop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasMeasurementSystemVariable

Code the measurement system sub-properties as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

Textual evidence of a measurement system: measurement units are named in sources (e.g. pound, aroura). Archaeological evidence includes finding containers of standard volume, etc. (use 'inferred presence').

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has sub-properties
Areaop, Geometricalop, Lengthop, Other Measurement Systemop, Timeop, Volumeop, Weightop
has domain
Organisationc

Merchant ships pressed into serviceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#pressedMerchantShips

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Merit Promotionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#meritPromotion

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown Code present if there are regular, institutionalized procedures for promotion based on performance. When exceptional individuals are promoted to the top ranks, in the absence of institutionalized procedures, we code it under institution and equity variables .

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Meta-conflictop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metaConflict

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown Is this war part of a group of conflicts that span a much larger timeframe between the belligerents? For example, the 'First', 'Second' and 'Third Punic' wars are conflicts within the Roman-Carthage meta-conflict. These wars are coded as separate wars, rather than grouped together and coded as a single 'Roman-Carthage' war.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Metal agricultural toolsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metalTools

Metals sector. Agricultural tools. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Metal currencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metalCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Metal currencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#nickelCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Nickel currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Metal used in armorop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metalUsedInArmour

Metals sector. Armour. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Metal vessels or utensils used in food preparationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metalFoodImplements

Metals sector. Food. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Military levelsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#militaryLevels

levels. Again, start with the commander-in-chief and work down to the private (level 1).

Even in primitive societies such as simple chiefdoms it is often possible to distinguish at least two levels � a commander and soldiers. A complex chiefdom would be coded three levels. The presence of warrior burials might be the basis for inferring the existence of a military organization. (The lowest military level is always the individual soldier).

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Levels Variablec

Military Revoltsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#militaryRevolts

Insurrection lead by a military leader involving components of armed forces. Provides additional description of internal wars. Because civil wars often involve several dimensions, code 'Present' as many of the variables Intra-elite conflicts, Popular uprisings, Military revolts, Separatist rebellions as apply. . Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Mines or quarriesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#mines

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Mnemonic devicesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#mnemonicDevices

Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Has Writing Systen Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Moatop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#moat

Differs from a ditch in that it has water. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Modern Fortificationsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#modernFortifications

Used after the introduction of gunpowder, e.g., trace italienne/starfort. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Most Dysphoric Collective Ritualop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#mostDysphoricCollectiveRitual

Unlike the other rituals, the most dysphoric collective ritual may not belong to the official cult, but may be practiced by another group that has a significant role in the polity. .

has super-properties
Has Ritualop

Most Euphoric Collective Ritual of the Official Cultop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#mostEuphoricCollectiveRitualOfOfficialCult

Code the ritual record for the most euphoric collective ritual of the official cult.

has super-properties
Has Ritualop

Most Frequent Collective Ritual of the Official Cultop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#mostFrequentCollectiveRitualOfOfficialCult

Code the ritual record for the most frequent collective ritual of the official cult.

has super-properties
Has Ritualop

Most Impressive/Costly Buildingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#mostCostlyBuilding

Name and describe the most impressive/costly building(s) in the narrative paragraph. Also score all of them for: heigth, extent and cost.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Building Variablec

Most Widespread Collective Ritual of the Official Cultop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#mostWidespreadCollectiveRitualOfOfficialCult

Widespread refers to the degree of coverage a ritual has in a polity and therefore to the proportion of the overall population that participates in or observes a ritual. Keep in mind that it is possible that the ritual with the highest coverage is not necessarily a mass ritual performed at one location, but can be a ritual that is performed all over the polity and of which the aggregate of the audiences represent the largest degree of coverage.

has super-properties
Has Ritualop

Mutilationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#mutilation

Widespread or systematic. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Nameop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#name

The name of a seshat Entity. Generally same as the name of the wiki page.

has super-properties
has general variableop
has domain
Seshat Entitityc
has range
Name Variablec

Naval Engagementop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#navalEngagement

List Naval Engagements here, with each Naval Engagement name linked to a data sheet describing the siege. See the template in the following section.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
Naval Engagement Variablec

Naval Engagementsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#numberOfNavalEngagements

Number of Naval Engagements in the war.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
non negative integer variablec

Non-phonetic alphabetic writingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#nonphoneticAlphabeticWriting

Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Has Writing Systen Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Non-written Recordsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#nonwrittenRecords

Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Has Writing Systen Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Noneop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#noConsequences

A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Number of Land Battlesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#numberOfLandBattles

Number of Land Battles in the war.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
non negative integer variablec

Number of Siegesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#numberOfSieges

Number of sieges in the war. Note that 'siege' is a generic name for any interaction between an army and a settlement belonging to opposing factions. If an army entered a hostile city without resistance, this is siege.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
non negative integer variablec

Oils or other combustiblesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#oilsOrCombustibles

Presence of this energy sector fuel. Describe what combustibles are known. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Orthodoxy Checksop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#orthodoxyChecks

Orthodoxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are interpreted in a standardized way, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system of governance, appeal to texts detailing the proper interpretation, etc. In the main paragraph, also give a brief description of the orthodoxy checks.

Orthopraxy Checksop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#orthopraxyChecks

Orthopraxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are performed in a standardized way, e.g. through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system of governance, appeal to texts detailing the proper procedure, etc. In the narrative paragraph, also give a brief description of the orthopraxy checks.

Otherop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#otherAnimialsInWarfare

Holds this value. Annotation including examples are mandatory.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
class

Other belligerent Aop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#otherBelligerentA

We group all belligerents into group A and group B. List other polities allied with Principle belligerent A.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
political organisation variablec

Other belligerent Bop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#otherBelligerentB

We group all belligerents into group A and group B. List other polities allied with Principle belligerent B.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
political organisation variablec

Other Handheld Weaponop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#otherHandheldWeapon

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Other Measurement Systemop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#otherMeasurementSystem

More advanced measurements: temperature, force, astronomical. Note that currency is coded not here, but below. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Measurement System Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Other Special Purpose Siteop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#otherSpecialPurposeSite

Provide a description

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Other Special Purpose Site Variable

Other Thrown Weaponsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#otherThrownWeapons

e.g. knives, shurikens, boomerang). List the other thrown weapons. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Paper Currncyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#paperCurrency

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Peak dateop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#peakDate

The period when the polity was at its peak, whether militarily, in terms of the size of territory controlled, or the degree of cultural development. This variable has a subjective element, but typically historians agree when the peak was.

has super-properties
has general variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Temporal Instant Variablec

Philiosophyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#philosophy

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Phonetic alphabetic writingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#phoneticAlphabeticWriting

Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Has Writing Systen Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Pictorial Evidence of Warfareop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#pictorialEvidenceOfWarfare

In the explanatory paragraph provide details and explain the nature of evidence (e.g., battles, attack on settlements, ritualized execution of prisoners, etc). The strategy right now is to simply code archaeological proxies as present/absent. However, in the explanatory paragraphs comment on any quantifyable features of data. For example, what proportion of skeletons bear evidence of violence. Eventually we may convert these notes into quantiative data. Code this variables as true/false for absent/present.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
boolean variablec

Plate Armourop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#plateArmour

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Polearmsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#polearms

This category includes halberds, naginatas, and morning stars. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Polity Populationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#population

Estimated population of the polity; can change as a result of both adding/losing new territories or by population growth/decline within a region .

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Population Variablec

polygonop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#polygon

Seshat variable to hold polygon variable of a Territory

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Unit of territoryc
has range
Polygon Variablec

Popular Uprisingsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#popularUprisings

Rebellion involving primarily commoners; taking place in the central regions of the polity (unlike a separatist rebellion). Provides additional description of internal wars. Because civil wars often involve several dimensions, code 'Present' as many of the variables Intra-elite conflicts, Popular uprisings, Military revolts, Separatist rebellions as apply. . Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Portsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ports

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. built and/or maintained by the polity (that is, code 'present' even if the polity did not build a road, but devotes resources to maintaining it).

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Postal Stationsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#postalStations

Specialized buildings exclusively devoted to the postal service. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Practical Literatureop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#practicalLiterature

For example manuals on agriculture, military, cooking, etc. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Preceeding (quasi)polityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#preceedingPoliticalAuthority

This code is based on the core region of the current polity (not the NGA region). E.g. Achaemenid Empire's core region was Persia, where they were preceded by the Median Empire.

Precious metalsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#preciousMetals

non-coined silver, gold, platinum. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Principal belligerent Aop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#principalBelligerentA

We group all belligerents into group A and group B. The polity that provided more troops than its allies on the battlefield.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
political organisation variablec

Principal belligerent Bop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#principalBelligerentB

We group all belligerents into group A and group B. The polity that provided more troops than its allies on the battlefield.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
battlec
has range
political organisation variablec

Procurement of equipmentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#procurementOfEquipment

Possible codes: by soldiers by soldiers, but compensated by the state and equipment (e.g. horses) replaced if lost by the state.

Procurement of equipment Valueop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#procurementOfEquipmentValue

Associates a value with a Procurement of equipment Variable for a Polity.

Professional Lawyersop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#professionalLawyers

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Professional Military Officersop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#professionalMilitaryOfficers

Full-time specialists absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Professional Priesthoodop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#professionalPriesthood

Full-time specialists absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Professional Soldiersop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#professionalSoldiers

Full-time specialists absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Raidop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#raid

Is this an attack on a city that cannot be classed as a formal siege? absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Siegec
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Rapeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#rape

Widespread or systematic. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

relatedToOrganisationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#relatedToOrganisation

A property used to associate an Entity with another Organisation.

Relationship to preceding (quasi)polityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#relationshipToPreceedingPoliticalAuthority

Possible codes: continuity (gradual change), cultural assimilation (by another quasipolity in the absence of substantial population replacement), elite migration (the preceding elites replaced by new elites coming from elsewhere), population migration (evidence for substantial population replacement). In the narrative paragraph explain the evidential basis for the code: what are the proxies for change? Examples include DNA data, isotope data, material (other than subsistence) culture, subsistence mode, symbolic culture (incl. burial practices), settlement patterns.

Religious levelsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#religiousLevels

levels. Same principle as with adminstrative levels variable. Start with the head of the official cult (if present) and work down to the local priest (level 1).

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Levels Variablec

Religious Literatureop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#religiousLiterature

This religious literature is in addition to the sacred texts. For example, providing commentary on the sacred texts. Include prophecies here. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Ritual Durationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ritualDuration

Indicate the duration of the ritual, including the unit of measurement (e.g. 2 hours or 3 days). In case the duration of the ritual varies (e.g. the duration varies between 6 and 10 hours) code for the midpoint (i.e. 8 hours).

Ritual Elementop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ritualElement

Used to code the euphoric and dysphoric elements of a particiular ritual. Dysphoric elements are negative (frightening, painful, or unpleasant), emotionally arousing components of ritual. Euphoric elements are positive, emotionally arousing components of a ritual.

has super-properties
has ritual variableop
has domain
Ritual Record Variablec
has range
Ritual Element Variablec

Ritual Inclusivnessop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ritualInclusivness

Defines a set of possible groups from which ritual actors may be drawn. May be coded for ritual specialists, participants and audience

has super-properties
has ritual variableop
has domain
Ritual Record Variablec
has range
Ritual Group Variablec

Ritual Nameop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ritualName

In the narrative part, also give a brief description of the ritual

has super-properties
has ritual variableop
has domain
Ritual Record Variablec
has range
Ritual Name Variablec

Roadsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#roads

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. built and/or maintained by the polity (that is, code 'present' even if the polity did not build a road, but devotes resources to maintaining it).

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Roughly what % of soldiers could afford any metal armor?op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#percentSoldiersInMetalArmour

Metals sector. Armour. Code as percent value

has range
non negative integer variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Sackop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#sack

Plundering is accompanied by widespread violence. May involve some property destruction, but there is no systematic destruction of permanent structures (see below). A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Sacred Textsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#sacredTexts

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Scale of supracultural interactionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#scaleOfSCInteraction

km squared. An estimate of the area encompassed by the supracultural entity.

Scaled Armourop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#scaledArmour

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Scientific Literatureop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#scientificLiterature

Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Scriptop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#script

Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Has Writing Systen Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Self bowop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#selfBow

This is a bow made from a single piece of wood (example: the English/Welsh longbow). Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Separatist Rebellionsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#separatistRebellions

Rebellion in a region aiming to secede from the center. Provides additional description of internal wars. Because civil wars often involve several dimensions, code 'Present' as many of the variables Intra-elite conflicts, Popular uprisings, Military revolts, Separatist rebellions as apply. . Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Setllement Destructionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#settlementDestruction

In the explanatory paragraph explain the nature of evidence (e.g., evidence of burning, followed by abandonment). The strategy right now is to simply code archaeological proxies as present/absent. However, in the explanatory paragraphs comment on any quantifyable features of data. For example, what proportion of skeletons bear evidence of violence. Eventually we may convert these notes into quantiative data. Code this variables as true/false for absent/present.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
boolean variablec

Settlement hierarchyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#settlementHierarchy

levels. This variable records the hierarchy of not just settlement sizes, but also their complexity as reflected in different roles they play within the (quasi)polity. As settlements become more populous they acquire more complex functions: transportational (e.g. port); economic (e.g. market); administrative (e.g. storehouse, local government building); cultural (e.g. theatre); religious (e.g. temple), utilitarian (e.g. hospital), monumental (e.g. statues, plazas).

Example: (6) Large City (monumental structures, theatre, market, hospital, central government buildings) (5) City (market, theatre, regional government buildings) (4) Large Town (market, administrative buildings) (3) Town (administrative buildings, storehouse)) (2) Village (shrine) (1) Hamlet (residential only).

In the narrative paragraph explain the different levels and list their functions. Provide a (crude) estimate of population sizes. For example, Large Town (market, temple, administrative buildings): 2,000-5,000 inhabitants.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Levels Variablec

Settlements in a defensive positionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#settlmentsInDefensivePosition

Settlements in a location that was clearly chosen for defensive reasons. E.g. on a hill top, peninsula. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Shieldsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#shields

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Siegeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#siege

List sieges here, with each siege name linked to a data sheet describing the siege. See the template in the following section.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
Siege Variablec

Siege Durationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#siegeDuration

Hours. Days. Weeks. Months. Years. Estimate. It isn't always known how many exact days the siege took but it is almost always possible to give a duration magnitude. Many sieges go on for months and years. However, if at any point the besieging army goes away in its entirety and then comes back for another go, this must be counted as two separate sieges.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Siegec
has range
days variablec

Siege Durationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#siegeDurationMagnitude

Days.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Siegec
has range
temporal unit variablec

Siege Failsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#siegeFails

Did the besieger fail? absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Siegec
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Silver currencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#silverCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Silver currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Skeletal Evidence of Violenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#skeletalEvidenceOfViolence

The strategy right now is to simply code archaeological proxies as present/absent. However, in the explanatory paragraphs comment on any quantifyable features of data. For example, what proportion of skeletons bear evidence of violence. Eventually we may convert these notes into quantiative data. Code this variables as true/false for absent/present.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
boolean variablec

Sling siege enginesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#slingSiegeEngines

E.g., trebuchet. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Slingsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#slings

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Small Vessels (canoes, etc.)op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#smallVessels

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Source of supportop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#sourceOfSupport

possible codes: state salary, governed population, land, none. 'State salary' can be paid either in currency or in kind (e.g., koku of rice). 'Governed population' means that the official directly collects tribute from the population (for example, the 'kormlenie' system in Medieval Russia). 'Land' is when the bureaucrats live off land supplied by the state. 'None' is when the state officials are not compensated (example: in the Republican and Principate Rome the magistrates were wealthy individuals who served without salary, motivated by prestige and social or career advancement).

Sources of Recruitsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#sourcesOfRecruits

Regular draft, mercenaries, mass mobilization, recruits into a professional corps: domestic or foreign. Could all segments of the population serve in the army, or was it restricted to such groups as elites, certain ethnicities or regions, foreigners, etc.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
Sources Of Recruits Variablec

Sources of Recruits Valueop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#sourcesOfRecruitsValue

Associates a value with a Sources of Recruits Variable for a Polity.

Spearsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#spears

Includes lances and pikes. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Special Purpose Houseop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#specialPurposeHouse

A normal house used in a distinctive or special manner. This code reflects differentiation between houses.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Special Purpose Sitesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#specialPurposeSites

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown Sites not associated with residential areas. This position is primarily useful for coding archaneologically known societies.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Specialisaed Military Vesselsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#specializedMilitaryVessels

Such as galleys and sailing ships. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Specialized Government Buildingsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#specializedGovernmentBuildings

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. These buildings must be distinct from the ruler's palace and may be used for document storage, registration offices, minting money, etc. Defense structures also are not coded here (see Military).

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Standing Armiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#standingArmies

Permanent armed forces that may be scaled back between conflicts, but not completely disbanded. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

State control over miningop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMining

Mining sector.The state holds a monopoly over the extraction of metal resources (explain in paragraph which metals the state monopolizes). Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

State monopoly over bronze productionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMonopolyBronze

Metallurgy sector. The state holds a monopoly over the production of bronze goods. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

State monopoly over copper productionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMonopolyCopper

Metallurgy sector. The state holds a monopoly over the production of copper goods. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

State monopoly over iron productionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMonopolyIron

Metallurgy sector. The state holds a monopoly over the production of iron goods. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

State monopoly over steel productionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMonopolySteel

Metallurgy sector. The state holds a monopoly over the production of steel goods. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Steelop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#incendiaries

e.g. fire arrows, Greek fire. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Steelop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#steel

Military use of this metal.

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Steel workingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#steelWorking

Metallurgy sector. Steel production. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Stone Walls (mortared)op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stoneWallsMortared

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Stone Walls (non-mortared)op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stoneWallsNoMortar

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Store of Wealthop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#storeOfWealth

example: vault, horde, chest. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Succeeding (quasi)polityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#succeedingPoliticalAuthority

Only name it here and don't code the nature of change (it's coded on the page of the succeeding quasipolity). This code is based on the core region of the current polity (not the NGA region). E.g. Achaemenid Empire's core region was Persia, where they were succeeded by the Macedonian Empire.

Supra-Polity Relationsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#supraPolityRelations

Polities may have a fuzzy starting date, if they originate as subpolities under a disintegrating overarching polity. These transitions are captured by the variable 'Supra-polity relations'.

has super-properties
has general variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
supra Polity Relations Variablec

Supracultural Entityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#supraculturalEntity

Provides a link to a larger-scale cultural groupings of polities or quasipolities, a supraculturalEntity.

Swordsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#swords

Bladed weapons longer than 50 cm. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Symbolic Buildingsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#symbolicBuildings

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. For example, a mausoleum.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Targeted massacreop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#targetedMassacre

A certain segment of population is targeted for extermination. These could be the army, the elites, ethnic or religious minorities. Less than 10 percent of population is affected. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Tension siege enginesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#tensionSiegeEngines

For example, catapult, onager. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Territoryop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#territoryArea

The area in km2 of a Territory or NGA

Timeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#time

A natural unit such as 'day' doesn't qualify. Nor does a vague one like 'season'. absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Measurement System Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

tin currencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#tinCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Tin currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Tokensop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#tokens

(example: cowries). absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Tortureop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#torture

Widespread or systematic. A type of Consequence for polities and their populations resulting from warfare. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
warc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Trading Emporiaop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#tradingEmporia

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Treachery op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#treachery

Did one or a group of the inhabitants 'open the gates', or otherwise enable the besieger to capture the city (sometimes this occurs without any formal siege occurring). absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
Siegec
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Typical Size of Participating Groupop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#typicalSizeOfParticipatingGroup

In absolute numbers.

Uniformity of Equipmentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#uniformityOfEquipment

The state equips the troops with standardized equipment. The alternative is for soldiers themselves to provide their own equipment. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Utilitarian Public Buildingsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#UtilitarianPublicBuildings

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. Typical examples include aqueducts, sewers, and granaries. In the narrative paragraph list all utilitarian buildings and give examples of the most impressive/costly/large ones. Also score them separately with the irrigationSystems, drinkingWaterSupplySystems, markets and foodStorageSites variables.

has super-properties
has social complexity variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Volumeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#volume

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Measurement System Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

War Beligerentsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warBelligerents

List all belligerents involved in any battles/sieges of this war.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
warc
has range
Political Authority Variablec

War Clubsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warClubs

Includes maces. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

War Dateop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warDate

Date from earliest to last conflict in this war.

has super-properties
has variableop
has domain
warc
has range
Duration Variablec

Wars between different religious sectsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsBetweenDifferentReligiousSects

This refers to different religious denominations with the same wordl religion. E.g., Catholics vs. Protestants, or Shiites vs. Sunnis. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars between different world religionsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsBetweenDifferentWorldReligions

E.g., Christianity vs. Islam, or Islam vs. Hinduism. World, or Axial religions include Zorastrianism, Judaism, Christianity (and its offshoots), Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Confucianism, Tengriism, Sikhism, Momrmonism, etc. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars between groups from different archaeological culturesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsBetweenGroupsFromDifferentArchaeologicalCultures

Use this variable for periods that are only known archaeologically. By 'different' archaeological cultures we mean those divided by a very sharp cultural gradient. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars involving groups with different dialectsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsInvolvingGroupswithDifferentDialects

Opponent groups perceive each other as having distinct ethnic identities demarcated by a significant dialectal difference, but still speaking a mutually comprehensible language but within the same linguistic group. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars involving groups with different language familiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsInvolvingGroupsWithDifferentLanguageFamilies

The opponent groups speak mutually unintelligible languages that have no similarities apparent to them. Examples include English and Chinese, or Italian and Hindu(although in the second example both are Indo-European languages, the kinship between them is not apparent to a nonspecialist). Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars involving groups with different languagesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsInvolvingGroupsWithDifferentLanguages

The opponent groups speak mutually unintelligible languages, but similarities between languages are apparent to them. Examples include English and Dutch, or Italian and Spanish, but not English and Italian (although both are Indo-European languages, the kinship between them is not apparent to a nonspecialist). Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars of world religion against tribal religionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsOfWorldReligionAgainstTribalReligion

E.g., Christian European settlers vs. Native American Indians. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars on agricultural frontierop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsOnAgriculturalFrontier

Settled agriculturalists vs. hunter-gatherers. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars on Civilization/Barbarism frontierop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsOnCivilizationBarbarismFrontier

'Civilization' refers to cultures with developed urbanism and literacy (indicated by written records), and 'barbarism' (in the non-pejorative sense) is a culture without developed urbanism and literacy. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars on steppe frontierop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsOnSteppeFrontier

Settled agriculturalists vs. nomadic pastoralists. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wars within same Ethnic Groupop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#warsWithinSameEthnicGroup

Both sides come from the same ethnic group and speak the same dialect of the common language. Most civil wars will fall into this category, unless there is a significant cultural distance between the two parties. Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Water powerop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#waterPower

Presence of this energy sector fuel. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Weightop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#weight

absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Measurement System Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wind powerop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#windPower

Presence of this energy sector fuel. This includes wind-powered mills. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Woodop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#wood

Presence of this energy sector fuel. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec
is also defined as
annotation property

Wood, Bark, etc.op back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#woodBark

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Wooden Palisadesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#woodenPalisades

Code this variables as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown .

has super-properties
has warfare variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

World Regionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#worldRegion

Not defined in codebook.

has super-properties
has general variableop
has domain
Unit of territoryc
has range
World Region Variablec

World Region Valueop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#worldRegionValue

Associates a World Region variable with its value.

has range
world region valuec
is also defined as
annotation property

Written Recordsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#writtenRecords

Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
Has Writing Systen Variableop
has domain
Organisationc
has range
uncertain temporal boolean data variablec

Data Properties

KML Line Stringdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#kmlLineStringCoordinates

This defines a KML polygon for a World Region.

has domain
world region valuec
has range
string

Latitude Banddp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#latitudeBand

This gives the value of a single latitude band from the MGRS geospatial reference system

has domain
u t m zone and lat band valuec
has range
string

polygon valuedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#polygonValue

A property used to define the geographical polygon encompassed by a Territory.

has domain
Polygon Variablec
has range
string

UTM Zonedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#uTMZone

This defines a single UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system) Zone.

has domain
u t m zone and lat band valuec
has range
non negative integer

Named Individuals

14Qni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#uTMZoneAndLatBand14Q

UTM 14Q, a single UTM Zone and a single latitude band from the MGRS geospatial reference system

belongs to
u t m zone and lat band valuec
has facts
UTM Zonedp "14"^^integer

33-Tni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#uTMZoneAndLatBand33T

UTM 33-T, a single UTM Zone and a single latitude band from the MGRS geospatial reference system

belongs to
u t m zone and lat band valuec
has facts
UTM Zonedp "33"^^integer

Africani back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#worldRegionAfrica

One of the standard seshat world regions

belongs to
world region valuec
has facts
KML Line Stringdp "-12.3046875,31.6533814,0 -26.3671875,20.6327843,0 -25.6640625,6.6646076,0 -6.328125,0.7031074,0 22.5,-41.2447723,0 43.59375,-35.46067,0 51.32812500000001,-28.3043807,0 56.25,-12.5545635,0 54.84375,14.2643831,0"

All Adult Malesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#allAdultMales

The extent of this group is all adult males.

belongs to
ritual group valuec

Allianceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#alliance

Belongs to a long-term military-political alliance of independent polities ('long-term' refers to more or less permanent relationship between polities extending over multiple years).

belongs to
supra polity relations valuec

Another Kind of Interest Groupni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#anotherKindOfInterestGroup

The extent of this group is another kind of interest group.

belongs to
ritual group valuec

Buildingni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Building

Used to describe impressive/costly buildings that are then associated with the Polities that built them and the NGAs in which they are placed. They have 3 dimensions and a narrative paragraph.

belongs to
Seshat Entitityc

By Soldiersni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#bySoldiers

Not defined in codebook

belongs to
procurement of equipment valuec

By Soldiers But Compensated by the state and equipment (e.g. horses) replaced if lost.ni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#bySoldiersButCompensated

Not defined in codebook

belongs to
sources of recruits valuec

By Stateni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#byState

Not defined in codebook

belongs to
sources of recruits valuec

Confederated Stateni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#confederatedState

Regions enjoy a large degree of autonomy in internal (regional) government. In particular, the regional governors are either hereditary rulers, or are elected by regional elites or by the population of the region; and regional governments can levy and dispose of regional taxes. Use this category for the more centralized 'feudal states'.

belongs to
degree of centralisation valuec

Continuityni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#continuity

Gradual change.

belongs to
relationship to preceeding political authority valuec

Cultural Assimilationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#culturalAssimilation

By another quasipolity in the absence of substantial population replacement.

belongs to
relationship to preceeding political authority valuec

Dailyni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#daily

An event that occurs on a daily basis.

belongs to
human scale temporal frequency valuec

Dayni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#day

A number of days, a measure of time or speed.

belongs to
unit of measurec

Dominant Ethnic Groupni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#dominantEthnicGroup

The extent of this group is the dominant ethnic group.

belongs to
ritual group valuec

Dominant Military Unitni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#dominantMilitaryUnit

The extent of this group is the dominant military unit.

belongs to
ritual group valuec

Elite Migrationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#eliteMigration

The preceding elites replaced by new elites coming from elsewhere.

belongs to
relationship to preceeding political authority valuec

Enemies of any Group Member are my Enemiesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#commonEnemies

Not defined in codebook.

belongs to
Ritual Cohesionc

Europeni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#worldRegionEurope

One of the standard seshat world regions

belongs to
world region valuec
has facts
KML Line Stringdp "29.8828125,42.8115217,0 33.046875,46.8000594,0 49.21875,52.6963611,0 60.8203125,56.5594825,0 60.46875,70.6126142,0 72.77343750000001,76.5985451,0 78.75,82.21421710000001,0 48.515625,83.0687741,0 27.0703125,83.153111,0 -4.5703125,83.277705,0"

Governed Populationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#governedPopulation

'Governed population' means that the official directly collects tribute from the population (for example, the 'kormlenie' system in Medieval Russia).

belongs to
source of support valuec

Honour Codeni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#honourCode

Not defined in codebook.

belongs to
Ritual Cohesionc

Landni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#land

'Land' is when the bureaucrats live off land supplied by the state.

belongs to
source of support valuec

Languageni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#Language

belongs to
Seshat Entitityc

Levelsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#levels

The number of levels for a hierarchy.

belongs to
unit of measurec

Looseni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#loose

The central government exercises a certain degree of control, especially over military matters and international relations. Otherwise the regional rulers are left alone (example: European 'feudalism' after the collapse of the Carolingian empire)

belongs to
degree of centralisation valuec

Mass Mobilizationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#massMobilization

Not defined in codebook

belongs to
sources of recruits valuec

Mercenariesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#mercenaries

Not defined in codebook

belongs to
sources of recruits valuec

Metresni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metres

The SI unit of measure for distance.

belongs to
unit of measurec

Metres squaredni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metresSquared

The SI unit of measure for area.

belongs to
unit of measurec

Monthlyni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#monthly

An event that occurs on a monthly basis.

belongs to
human scale temporal frequency valuec

No Source of Supportni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#noSourceOfSupport

'None' is when the state officials are not compensated (example: in the Republican and Principate Rome the magistrates were wealthy individuals who served without salary, motivated by prestige and social or career advancement).

belongs to
source of support valuec

No Supra-Polity Relationsni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#noSupraPolityRelations

Called 'none' in codebook but undefined.

belongs to
supra polity relations valuec

Nominalni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#nominal

Regional rulers pay only nominal allegiance to the overall ruler and maintain independence on all important aspects of governing, including taxation and warfare. (example: Japan during the Sengoku period).

belongs to
degree of centralisation valuec

Nominal Allegianceni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#nominalAllegiance

The same as 'nominal' under Degree of centralization variable but now reflecting the position of the focal polity within the overarching political authority.

belongs to
supra polity relations valuec

North Americani back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#worldRegionNorthAmerica

One of the standard seshat world regions

belongs to
world region valuec
has facts
KML Line Stringdp "-75.5859375,24.2068896,0 -43.2421875,50.9584267,0 -18.984375,70.14036430000002,0 -4.5703125,83.277705,0 -40.78125,83.86761629999999,0 -75.5859375,83.40004209999999,0 -118.4765625,78.8360655,0 -165.234375,71.8562289,0 -176.1328145,52.908902,0 -144.4653229,47.35497830000001,0 -130.078129,31.9521623,0 -121.1296787,20.9428206,0 -110.2736777,12.1477178,0 -87.3632812,8.928487100000002,0"

Number of Peopleni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#numPeople

A measure counted in numbers of people.

belongs to
unit of measurec

Oath Takingni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#oathTaking

Not defined in codebook.

belongs to
Ritual Cohesionc

Obligations to Each Other's Familiesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#familyObligations

Not defined in codebook.

belongs to
Ritual Cohesionc

Once in a Lifetimeni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#onceInALifetime

An event that occurs on a once in a lifetime basis.

belongs to
human scale temporal frequency valuec

Once Per Geneationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#oncePerGeneration

An event that occurs on a once per generation basis.

belongs to
human scale temporal frequency valuec

Other Cohesionni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#otherCohesion

Not defined in codebook.

belongs to
Ritual Cohesionc

Person-Yearni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#personYear

A number of person-years of human effort, a measure of cost or effort.

belongs to
unit of measurec

Personal Unionni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#personalUnion

The focal polity is united with another, or others, as a result of a dynastic marriage.

belongs to
supra polity relations valuec

Population Migrationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#populationMigration

Evidence for substantial population replacement.

belongs to
relationship to preceeding political authority valuec

Quasipolity or Noneni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#quasiPolityOrNone

Use if the NGA is inhabited by many politically independent groups

belongs to
degree of centralisation valuec

Recruits into a Professional Corps:Domesticni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#recruitsIntoAProfessionalCorpsDomestic

Not defined in codebook

belongs to
sources of recruits valuec

Recruits into a Professional Corps:Foreignni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#recruitsIntoAProfessionalCorpsForeign

Not defined in codebook

belongs to
sources of recruits valuec

Regular Draftni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#regularDraft

Not defined in codebook

belongs to
sources of recruits valuec

Ruling Elitesni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#rulingElites

The extent of this group is the ruling elites.

belongs to
ritual group valuec

State Salaryni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateSalary

'State salary' can be paid either in currency or in kind (e.g., koku of rice).

belongs to
source of support valuec

Unit of Measureni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#UnitOfMeasure

Definitions of the units used by seshat variables.

belongs to
Seshat Entitityc

Unitary Stateni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#unitaryState

Regional governors are appointed and removed by the central authorities, taxes are imposed by, and transmitted to the center.

belongs to
degree of centralisation valuec

UTM 34-Tni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#uTMZoneAndLatBand34T

UTM 34-T, a single UTM Zone and a single latitude band from the MGRS geospatial reference system.

belongs to
u t m zone and lat band valuec
has facts
UTM Zonedp "34"^^integer

Vassalageni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#vassalage

Corresponding to the 'loose' category in the Degree of centralization.

belongs to
supra polity relations valuec

Weeklyni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#weekly

An event that occurs on a weekly basis.

belongs to
human scale temporal frequency valuec

Whole Polityni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#wholePolity

The extent of this group is the whole polity.

belongs to
ritual group valuec

Willingness to Die for Each Otherni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#willingToDie

Not defined in codebook.

belongs to
Ritual Cohesionc

Yearni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#year

A number of years, a measure of time or speed.

belongs to
unit of measurec

Yearlyni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#yearly

An event that occurs on a yearly basis.

belongs to
human scale temporal frequency valuec

Annotation Properties

Animals used for agricultural laborap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#animalAgriLabour

Presence of this energy sector use of animal energy. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Animals used for transportap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#animalTransport

Presence of this energy sector use of animal energy. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Animals used in the militaryap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#animalsMilitary

Presence of this energy sector use of animal energy. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

annotation mandatoryap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/utv#annotationMandatory

Billon currencyap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#billonCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Billon currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Bronze currencyap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#bronzeCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Bronze currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Bronze workingap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#bronzeWorking

Metallurgy sector. Bronze production. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Coalap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#coal

Presence of this energy sector fuel. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

commemtap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#commemt

Copperap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#copperWorking

Metallurgy sector. Copper production. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Copper currencyap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#copperCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Copper currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Cost (building)ap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#cost

The cost of a building in people-years.

has super-properties
has variable
has domain
Building
is also defined as
object property

Domestic miningap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#domesticMining

Mining sector. Mines are known to have been exploited within the NGA territory. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Electrum currencyap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#electrumCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Electrum currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Extent (building)ap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#extent

The the horizontal dimension along the longest axis of a building in meters.

has super-properties
has variable
has domain
Building
is also defined as
object property

Goldap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#goldCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Gold currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

has econonomy technology variableap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#hasEcononomyTechnologyVariable

Heigth (building)ap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#height

The height of a building in meters.

has super-properties
has variable
has domain
Building
is also defined as
object property

Intensty of miningap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#intenseMining

Mining sector. There is evidence for mines within polity territory being exhausted. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Iron currencyap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ironCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Iron currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Iron workingap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#ironWorking

Metallurgy sector. Iron production. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

KML Polygonap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#kmlPolygonValue

A property used to define the geographical polygon encompassed by a Territory in the format of a KML coordinates string.

has super-properties
polygon value

lattidude bandap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#lattidudeBand

Metal agricultural toolsap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metalTools

Metals sector. Agricultural tools. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Metal currencyap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metalCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Metal currencyap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#nickelCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Nickel currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Metal used in armorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metalUsedInArmour

Metals sector. Armour. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Metal vessels or utensils used in food preparationap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#metalFoodImplements

Metals sector. Food. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Oils or other combustiblesap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#oilsOrCombustibles

Presence of this energy sector fuel. Describe what combustibles are known. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Procurement of equipment Valueap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#procurementOfEquipmentValue

Associates a value with a Procurement of equipment Variable for a Polity.

has super-properties
valueap
has domain
Procurement Of Equipment Variablec
is also defined as
object property

Roughly what % of soldiers could afford any metal armor?ap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#percentSoldiersInMetalArmour

Metals sector. Armour. Code as percent value

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Silver currencyap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#silverCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Silver currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Sources of Recruits Valueap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#sourcesOfRecruitsValue

Associates a value with a Sources of Recruits Variable for a Polity.

has super-properties
valueap
has domain
Sources Of Recruits Variablec
is also defined as
object property

State control over miningap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMining

Mining sector.The state holds a monopoly over the extraction of metal resources (explain in paragraph which metals the state monopolizes). Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

State monopoly over bronze productionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMonopolyBronze

Metallurgy sector. The state holds a monopoly over the production of bronze goods. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

State monopoly over copper productionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMonopolyCopper

Metallurgy sector. The state holds a monopoly over the production of copper goods. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

State monopoly over iron productionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMonopolyIron

Metallurgy sector. The state holds a monopoly over the production of iron goods. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

State monopoly over steel productionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#stateMonopolySteel

Metallurgy sector. The state holds a monopoly over the production of steel goods. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Steel workingap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#steelWorking

Metallurgy sector. Steel production. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

tin currencyap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#tinCurrency

Metals sector. Coinage. Tin currency. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

unit of measureap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#unitOfMeasure

unit of measureap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/utv#unitOfMeasure

valueap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#value

Water powerap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#waterPower

Presence of this energy sector fuel. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Wind powerap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#windPower

Presence of this energy sector fuel. This includes wind-powered mills. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

Woodap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#wood

Presence of this energy sector fuel. Code as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

has super-properties
has econonomy technology variableap
has domain
NGA, Natural geographic areac
is also defined as
object property

World Region Valueap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#worldRegionValue

Associates a World Region variable with its value.

has super-properties
valueap
has domain
World Region Variablec
is also defined as
object property

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
seshat
http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/seshat#
utv
http://dacura.cs.tcd.ie/data/utv#
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.